New PDF release: Mitigating Transport Pollution in Developing Countries: An

By Lakdasa Wijetilleke

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Many factors including initial conditions and external shocks, subsidies to failing enterprises, monetary expansion, and heavy borrowing have contributed to Ukraine's economic decline and growing poverty. Initial Conditions and External Shocks The most important initial conditions and external shocks have been: The breakdown in trade and payment relations that came with the collapse of the Soviet Union. The higher energy prices introduced by Russia after the collapse. The large scale of Ukraine's agricultural and industrial enterprises.

Yakubovsky (Deputy Director, Research Institute of Ministry of Economy); Shadow Economy Policy: Mr. Borodiuk (Doctor of Economics, Accounting Chamber of Ukraine), and Mr. Turchinov (Member of Parliament, Budget Committee, Verkhovna Rada); on Social Protection Policies: Mr. Yaremenko (Deputy Minister of Economy), Mr. Soldatenko (Head of the Main Department, Ministry of Economy), and Ms. Zinkevych (Deputy Head of the Main Department, Ministry of Economy). World Bank and other experts who assisted and complemented the work of the Ukrainian teams included: Foreign Trade and Commercial Policies: Michael Michaely with Veronika Movchan; Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations: Deborah Wetzel, Thomas Cochran, Mark Davis, Sean O'Connel, Leonid Polishchuk and Lucan Way; Public Expenditures on Education and Health: Frederick Golladay, Galina Sotirova, Kate Schecter and Ghanaraj Chellaraj: Legal Threats to Fiscal Sustainability: Joachim Lippott (Legal Advisor, TACIS/UEPLAC); Agriculture: Csaba Csaki, Mark Lundell and Ian Shuker; Banking Reform: Angela Prigozhina and Alan Roe; Coal Sector Policy: Heinz Hendriks: Shadow Economy: Maxim Ljubinsky; District Heating Policy: Carolyn Gochenour: Electricity Market Reform: Laszlo Lovei, Istvan Dobozi and Sergey Milenky, Environment: Alexi Slenzak; Education Finance: Katerina Petrina; Fiscal Reform: Mark Davis; Gas Sector Policy: Laszlo Lovei and Konstantin Skorik; Housing and Water Sectors: Ihor Korablev; International Trade: Veronica Movchan; Labor Market: Arvo Kuddo; Pension Reform: Larisa Leshchenko and Katerina Petrina; Private Sector Development: Gregory Jedrzejczak and Vladimir Kreacic; Prospects For Economic Reform and Debt Sustainability: Andriy Storozhuk; Social Assistance: Galina Sotirova; and Transport Sector: Pedro Taborga.

The Government's high levels of domestic borrowing to cover its deficits and debt service costs has crowded out the enterprise sector from the capital marketwith real interest rates exceeding 50 percent, few legitimate enterprises can afford to borrow. Escaping the downward economic spiral requires a radical change in Government's role in the economy. Leading industrial enterprises from Soviet days are still owned by government, and at the local level government interference both with the sale and movement of agricultural products and with the operation of industrial enterprises causes serious economic problems.

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Mitigating Transport Pollution in Developing Countries: An Analysis of the Fuels Reformulation Option (World Bank Technical Paper) by Lakdasa Wijetilleke

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