Europe from the Renaissance to Waterloo (College) - download pdf or read online

By R. Ergang

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At the same time, the governments of the rising national states were chafing under the yoke of papal authority. Already in the fourteenth century Parliament passed a of statutes designed to limit the papal authority in England, and in the following century anticlerical legislation became effective in most other countries of western Europe. In the sixteenth century this anticlerical sentiment was to culminate in a revolt against the Church, and the establishment of the Protestant churches. series All of these factors which ushered in the be grouped under six headings: the intensification of the secular spirit, America and Asia, the modern period may of the national state, the the expansion of Europe into rise rise of modern capitalism, the founding of the Protestant churches, and the rise of modern science.

But parliamentary taxes were not the only sources of his income. He gathered wealth for the royal exchequer wherever and however he could. Knowing that he would lose the favor of the masses if he increased their tax burden, the king had recourse to various expedients which, while drawing heavily from if possible, lest Parliament curtail his authority. England the nobility lower classes. 29 and wealthy merchants, spared the pockets of From the the supposedly wealthy he collected benevo- on the principle that if they lived handwas plain that they possessed an abundance of wealth, and if they lived frugally they must have saved much.

On the one hand, the up the theoretical unity of Christen- the other, the disjointed political fragments were being more homogeneous states. In these new national king was the focus of power, for in his person all authority was increasingly concentrating. Slowly, and often pain- fused into or less states the under royal control and added The governmental functions which had been exercised by various individuals and groups when the central power was weak were gradually being absorbed by the national authorities; in other words, by the king and his bureaucracy.

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Europe from the Renaissance to Waterloo (College) by R. Ergang

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