By A. Crucq
This quantity constitutes the complaints of the second one symposium on Catalysis and car pollutants keep an eye on. CAPoC 2 was once a good luck from the perspective of its clinical curiosity, as evidenced by means of the content material of this ebook, and in addition from the excessive participation, a few 260 scientists. approximately two-thirds of the individuals got here from the commercial international, customarily the automobile and oil industries and catalyst brands. this is often plentiful facts that exhaust catalysis is still a big subject of curiosity. the 1st a part of the e-book is a basic advent to the matter of automobile pollutants. the second one, strictly catalytic, half is dedicated to basic and utilized reviews on pollutants regulate, with emphasis on exhaust catalytic converters.
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Extra info for Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control II
The optimum performances that can be achieved in terms of fuel consumption are counter-balanced by the following issues when compared with a conventional engine: - increase in HC emissions - higher NOx emissions during the cold phase 46 - higher dispersion of the emission levels as a function of the tolerances of the fuel metering system - driveability. It T "1- 30 10 m ;lrH N E L ~ Y s T I o N mo m$sa M 1 14 1 1 18 1 1 18 1 1 20 1 8 1 p iuno 1 24 Fig. 3 Engine Emissions and Specific Fuel Consumption vs AIF Ratio Fig.
Nowadays, they show seasonal variations reaching a peak of 40 to 50 ppb in spring and summer. The differences in concentration and their variation are obviously due to human activities. 5 and 1% per year, and about 2% in heavily polluted regions. High ozone values were reported from all countries of the European Community this summer, also from the North. Values exceeding 300 pg/m3 occurred in many Member States. WHO regards 120 pg/m3 as the threshold value where health effects occur. The Dutch Institute of public health has studied health effects at ozone concentrations higher than 240 pglrn3 and found them to provoke headache, cough, nausea, vertigo, irritation of eyes and nose, and a decrease of lung function.
COMPOSITION AND EFFECTS OF NOXIOUS EXHAUST EMISSIONS A number of damages are attributed to tailpipe emissions. the toxic pollutants are causing health impairments, plant damage and damages to material. The first pollutant to raise concern was carbon monoxide because it was emitted in so high quantities that ambient air concentrations were acutely toxic. Through concentrations have decrease meanwhile, carbon monoxide is still a problem because not much is known about chronic effects and because it 18 Car ownership EUROPE 12 600 500 400 300 200 100 n " I 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Evolution of goods traffic 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Evolution of passenger traffic 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Figure 1 :Transport indicators (ref 2 ) 2010 2015 61 OLOZ OLOZ oooz oooz 066 L 066 L 086 L 086 L Figure 2: NOx and C02 emissions for Europe 12 by sector (ref 2) 20 contributes to the climate effect as its greenhouse potential is five times that of C 0 2 .
Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control II by A. Crucq