By Isamu Nouchi (auth.), Kenji Omasa Ph.D., Hiharu Saji Ph.D., Shohab Youssefian Ph.D., Noriaki Kondo Ph.D. (eds.)
Air toxins is ubiquitous in industrialized societies, inflicting a number of environmental difficulties. it's hence necessary to visual display unit and decrease pollutants degrees. a few plant species already are being exploited as detectors (for phytomonitoring) and as scavengers (for phytoremediation) of air pollution. With advances in biotechnology, it truly is now possible to change vegetation for a much broader diversity of phytomonitoring and phytoremediation purposes. pollution and Plant Biotechnology offers contemporary leads to this box, together with plant responses in the course of phytomonitoring, pollution-resistant plant species, imaging prognosis of plant responses, and using novel transgenic crops, in addition to studies of uncomplicated plant body structure and biochemistry the place applicable. Researchers and scholars operating in plant biotechnology and the environmental sciences or contemplating new components of research will locate this quantity a worthy reference.
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Additional resources for Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology: Prospects for Phytomonitoring and Phytoremediation
Uptake and metabolic pathways of nitrogen dioxide into plant tissues from Ithe atmosphere (from Kondo and Saji, 1992, with permission). NaR, nitrate reductase; Nir, nitrite reductase; GS, glutamine synthetase; GOGAT, glutamate synthase; glutamine, COOHCHNH2(CH2)2COOH; glutamate, CONH2(CH2)2CHNH3 +COO· 20 I. Nouchi of these enzymes is higher in the light than in the dark. Especially, the reduction of N0 2' to NH/ by NiR requires energy of reduced ferredoxin and ATP provided by photosynthesis (Malhotra and Khan 1984).
1991) proposed that injury due to 0 3 is attributed to a free radical-forming reaction between the 0 3 coming from the atmosphere and stress C2H4 emerging from the plant cells in guard cells or substomatal cavities. However, no conclusive evidence for these proposals has yet been reported. Recently, organic peroxides such as hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP, HOCH200H) were reported to be produced by reactions of ozone with volatile hydrocarbons emitted by plants, which were detected in the forest air and in the plant leaves (Hewitt et aJ.
5). Furthermore, NH/ is incorporated into glutamate by the combined action of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in chloroplasts, and then converted to other amino acids (Yoneyama et al. 1979; Lea et al. 1990; Wellburn 1990). The activity Atmosphere ............ ~ ....................................................... +- glutamine _glutamate ......... ,t ........................................................... N03' Soil I I .. Fig. 6. Uptake and metabolic pathways of nitrogen dioxide into plant tissues from Ithe atmosphere (from Kondo and Saji, 1992, with permission).
Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology: Prospects for Phytomonitoring and Phytoremediation by Isamu Nouchi (auth.), Kenji Omasa Ph.D., Hiharu Saji Ph.D., Shohab Youssefian Ph.D., Noriaki Kondo Ph.D. (eds.)